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3 Νοε 2010

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model

Ανακτήθηκε από businessballs

Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever. Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and Personality, published in 1954 (second edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended his ideas in other work, notably his later book Toward A Psychology Of Being, a significant and relevant commentary, which has been revised in recent times by Richard Lowry, who is in his own right a leading academic in the field of motivational psychology...

Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970, although various publications appear in Maslow's name in later years. Maslow's PhD in psychology in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin formed the basis of his motivational research, initially studying rhesus monkeys. Maslow later moved to New York's Brooklyn College.

The Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs five-stage model below (structure and terminology - not the precise pyramid diagram itself) is clearly and directly attributable to Maslow; later versions of the theory with added motivational stages are not so clearly attributable to Maslow. These extended models have instead been inferred by others from Maslow's work. Specifically Maslow refers to the needs Cognitive, Aesthetic and Transcendence (subsequently shown as distinct needs levels in some interpretations of his theory) as additional aspects of motivation, but not as distinct levels in the Hierarchy of Needs.

Where Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is shown with more than five levels these models have been extended through interpretation of Maslow's work by other people. These augmented models and diagrams are shown as the adapted seven and eight-stage Hierarchy of Needs pyramid diagrams and models below.

There have been very many interpretations of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in the form of pyramid diagrams. The diagrams on this page are my own interpretations and are not offered as Maslow's original work. Interestingly in Maslow's book Motivation and Personality, which first introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, there is not a pyramid to be seen.

Free Hierarchy of Needs diagrams in pdf and doc formats similar to the image below are available from this page.

(N.B. The word Actualization/Actualisation can be spelt either way. Z is preferred in American English. S is preferred in UK English. Both forms are used in this page to enable keyword searching for either spelling via search engines.)



maslow's hierarchy of needs

Each of us is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself.

Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development.

Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher order needs.

Maslow's original Hierarchy of Needs model was developed between 1943-1954, and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in 1954. At this time the Hierarchy of Needs model comprised five needs. This original version remains for most people the definitive Hierarchy of Needs.



maslow's hierarchy of needs - free pdf diagram and free doc diagram

1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.


This is the definitive and original Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

While Maslow referred to various additional aspects of motivation, he expressed the Hierarchy of Needs in these five clear stages.

Here is a quick simple self-test based on the original Maslow's 5-level Hierarchy of Needs. It's not a scientific or validated instrument - merely a quick indicator, which can be used for self-awareness, discussion, etc.



1970s adapted hierarchy of needs model, including cognitive and aesthetic needs - free pdf diagram and free doc diagram

1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive needs - knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.


N.B. Although Maslow referred to additional aspects of motivation, 'Cognitive' and 'Aesthetic', he did not include them as levels or stages within his own expression of the Hierarchy of Needs.



1990s adapted hierarchy of needs including transcendence needs - free diagram and free doc diagram

1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive needs - knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self actualization.


N.B. Although Maslow referred to additional aspects of motivation, 'Cognitive', 'Aesthetic', and 'Transcendence', he did not include any of these as additional stages in the Hierarchy of Needs.

Here is a quick self-test based on the extended 8-level Hierarchy of Needs. Like the 5-level Hierarchy of Needs self-test it is not a scientific or validated instrument - merely a quick indicator for helping self-awareness, discussion, etc.



what hierarchy of needs model is most valid?

Abraham Maslow created the original five level Hierarchy of Needs model, and for many this remains entirely adequate for its purpose. The seven and eight level 'hierarchy of needs' models are later adaptations by others, based on Maslow's work. Arguably, the original five-level model includes the later additional sixth, seventh and eighth ('Cognitive', 'Aesthetic', and 'Transcendence') levels within the original 'Self-Actualization' level 5, since each one of the 'new' motivators concerns an area of self-development and self-fulfilment that is rooted in self-actualization 'growth', and is distinctly different to any of the previous 1-4 level 'deficiency' motivators. For many people, self-actualizing commonly involves each and every one of the newly added drivers. As such, the original five-level Hierarchy of Needs model remains a definitive classical representation of human motivation; and the later adaptations perhaps serve best to illustrate aspects of self-actualization.



Maslow said that needs must be satisfied in the given order. Aims and drive always shift to next higher order needs. Levels 1 to 4 are deficiency motivators; level 5, and by implication 6 to 8, are growth motivators and relatively rarely found. The thwarting of needs is usually a cause of stress, and is particularly so at level 4.

Examples in use:

You can't motivate someone to achieve their sales target (level 4) when they're having problems with their marriage (level 3).

You can't expect someone to work as a team member (level 3) when they're having their house re-possessed (level 2).



maslow's self-actualizing characteristics

keen sense of reality - aware of real situations - objective judgement, rather than subjective
see problems in terms of challenges and situations requiring solutions, rather than see problems as personal complaints or excuses
need for privacy and comfortable being alone
reliant on own experiences and judgement - independent - not reliant on culture and environment to form opinions and views
not susceptible to social pressures - non-conformist
democratic, fair and non-discriminating - embracing and enjoying all cultures, races and individual styles
socially compassionate - possessing humanity
accepting others as they are and not trying to change people
comfortable with oneself - despite any unconventional tendencies
a few close intimate friends rather than many surface relationships
sense of humour directed at oneself or the human condition, rather than at the expense of others
spontaneous and natural - true to oneself, rather than being how others want
excited and interested in everything, even ordinary things
creative, inventive and original
seek peak experiences that leave a lasting impression
See the Maslow interviews DVDs - especially Maslow and Self-Actualization to understand the subject more fully. These films were made in 1968 and are helpful on several levels, and both wonderful teaching and learning aids.

See also the newer Maslow MP3 talks series.

These materials also help to illustrate the far-reaching and visionary nature of Maslow's thinking, several decades ago.

The above materials are published by Maurice Bassett on behalf of the estate of Abraham Maslow. Businessballs takes no commission and recommends them simply because they are wonderful materials for all students and followers of Maslow's very special work.



maslow's hierarchy of needs in advertising

To help with training of Maslow's theory look for Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivators in advertising. This is a great basis for Maslow and motivation training exercises:

Biological and Physiological needs - wife/child-abuse help-lines, social security benefits, Samaritans, roadside recovery.
Safety needs - home security products (alarms, etc), house an contents insurance, life assurance, schools.
Belongingness and Love needs - dating and match-making services, chat-lines, clubs and membership societies, Macdonalds, 'family' themes like the old style Oxo stock cube ads.
Esteem needs - cosmetics, fast cars, home improvements, furniture, fashion clothes, drinks, lifestyle products and services.
Self-Actualization needs - Open University, and that's about it; little else in mainstream media because only 2% of population are self-actualizers, so they don't constitute a very big part of the mainstream market.
You can view and download free Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs diagrams, and two free Hierarchy of Needs self-tests, based on the original Maslow's five-stage model and later adapted eight-stage model, ideal for training, presentations and project work, at the businessballs free online resources section.

Free diagrams include:

Pyramid diagram based on Maslow's original five-level Hierarchy of Needs (1954).
Adapted seven-level Hierarchy of Needs diagram (which seems to have first appeared in the 1970s - after Maslow's death).
Adapted eight-level Hierarchy of Needs diagram (appearing later, seemingly 1990s).


interpreting behaviour according to maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is an excellent model for understanding human motivation, but it is a broad concept. If you are puzzled as to how to relate given behaviour to the Hierarchy it could be that your definition of the behaviour needs refining. For example, 'where does 'doing things for fun' fit into the model? The answer is that it can't until you define 'doing things for fun' more accurately.

You'd need to define more precisely each given situation where a person is 'doing things for fun' in order to analyse motivation according to Maslow's Hierarchy, since the 'fun' activity motive can potentially be part any of the five original Maslow needs.

Understanding whether striving to achieve a particular need or aim is 'fun' can provide a helpful basis for identifying a Maslow driver within a given behaviour, and thereby to assess where a particular behaviour fits into the model:

Biological - health, fitness, energising mind and body, etc.
Safety - order and structure needs met for example by some heavily organised, structural activity
Belongingness - team sport, club 'family' and relationships
Esteem - competition, achievement, recognition
Self-Actualization drivers - challenge, new experiences, love of art, nature, etc.
However in order to relate a particular 'doing it for fun' behaviour the Hierarchy of Needs we need to consider what makes it 'fun' (i.e., rewarding) for the person. If a behaviour is 'for fun', then consider what makes it 'fun' for the person - is the 'fun' rooted in 'belongingness', or is it from 'recognition', i.e., 'esteem'. Or is the fun at a deeper level, from the sense of self-fulfilment, i.e., 'self-actualization'.

Apply this approach to any behaviour that doesn't immediately fit the model, and it will help you to see where it does fit.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs will be a blunt instrument if used as such. The way you use the Hierarchy of Needs determines the subtlety and sophistication of the model.

For example: the common broad-brush interpretation of Maslow's famous theory suggests that that once a need is satisfied the person moves onto the next, and to an extent this is entirely correct. However an overly rigid application of this interpretation will produce a rigid analysis, and people and motivation are more complex. So while it is broadly true that people move up (or down) the hierarchy, depending what's happening to them in their lives, it is also true that most people's motivational 'set' at any time comprises elements of all of the motivational drivers. For example, self-actualizers (level 5 - original model) are mainly focused on self-actualizing but are still motivated to eat (level 1) and socialise (level 3). Similarly, homeless folk whose main focus is feeding themselves (level 1) and finding shelter for the night (level 2) can also be, albeit to a lesser extent, still concerned with social relationships (level 3), how their friends perceive them (level 4), and even the meaning of life (level 5 - original model).

Like any simple model, Maslow's theory not a fully responsive system - it's a guide which requires some interpretation and thought, given which, it remains extremely useful and applicable for understanding, explaining and handling many human behaviour situations.



maslow's hierarchy of needs and helping others

There are certainly some behaviours that are quite tricky to relate to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

For example:

Normally, we would consider that selflessly helping others, as a form of personal growth motivation, would be found as part of self-actualisation, or perhaps even 'transcendence' (if you subscribe to the extended hierarchy).

So how can we explain the examples of people who seem to be far short of self-actualising, and yet are still able to help others in a meaningful and unselfish sense?

Interestingly this concept seems to be used increasingly as an effective way to help people deal with depression, low self-esteem, poor life circumstances, etc., and it almost turns the essential Maslow model on its head: that is, by helping others, a person helps themselves to improve and develop too.

The principle has also been applied quite recently to developing disaffected school-children, whom, as part of their own development, have been encouraged and enabled to 'teach' other younger children (which can arguably be interpreted as their acting at a self-actualising level - selflessly helping others). The disaffected children, theoretically striving to belong and be accepted (level 3 - belongingness) were actually remarkably good at helping other children, despite their own negative feelings and issues.

Under certain circumstances, a person striving to satisfy their needs at level 3 - belongingness, seems able to self-actualise - level 5 (and perhaps beyond, into 'transcendence') by selflessly helping others, and at the same time begins to satisfy their own needs for belongingness and self-esteem.

Such examples demonstrate the need for careful interpretation and application of the Maslow model. The Hierarchy of Needs is not a catch-all, but it does remain a wonderfully useful framework for analysing and trying to understand the subtleties - as well as the broader aspects - of human behaviour and growth.



self-actualisation, employees and organisations

Maslow's work and ideas extend far beyond the Hierarchy of Needs.

Maslow's concept of self-actualisation relates directly to the present day challenges and opportunities for employers and organisations - to provide real meaning, purpose and true personal development for their employees. For life - not just for work.

Maslow saw these issues fifty years ago: the fact that employees have a basic human need and a right to strive for self-actualisation, just as much as the corporate directors and owners do.

Increasingly, the successful organisations and employers will be those who genuinely care about, understand, encourage and enable their people's personal growth towards self-actualisation - way beyond traditional work-related training and development, and of course way beyond old-style X-Theory management autocracy, which still forms the basis of much organised employment today.

The best modern employers and organisations are beginning to learn at last: that sustainable success is built on a serious and compassionate commitment to helping people identify, pursue and reach their own personal unique potential.

When people grow as people, they automatically become more effective and valuable as employees.

In fact virtually all personal growth, whether in a hobby, a special talent or interest, or a new experience, produces new skills, attributes, behaviours and wisdom that is directly transferable to any sort of job role.

The best modern employers recognise this and as such offer development support to their staff in any direction whatsoever that the person seeks to grow and become more fulfilled.



classic 1968 maslow interviews now on dvd

Both filmed in 1968, after Maslow's heart attack, and obviously prior to his death in 1970, these superb Maslow DVDs show Dr Maslow being interviewed, respectively by Dr Everett Shostrom, and also interestingly, Warren Bennis.

Both films - available here - were made in 1968 and were remastered in black and white in 2007. The remarkable content, and the 1960s styling and production add to the seductive and powerful effect of these films, which stems chiefly from Maslow's brilliant thinking and natural charismatic presence.

Being Abraham Maslow is half an hour long, and features Maslow talking to Warren Bennis about his life, his views of the world and his work. It is utterly compelling and shows Maslow's staggering perception of the issues which challenge society and humankind today - and this was recorded in 1968. The film, basically irresistible throughout, includes some marvelous moments, such as Maslow's questioning observation as to "...how good a human nature does society permit?...", and the visionary statement that: "...The Good Society now has to be one world - it has to be one world or it won't work - nationalism is dead - it just doesn't know it yet..."

He said this in 1968 and still today our leaders don't see it.

Maslow and Self-Actualization is an hour long, in two parts, in which Maslow is interviewed by Dr Everett Shostrom about Self-Actualization, in which Shostrom uses references and quotes extracts from Maslow's book Motivation and Personality, and Maslow explains and develops the themes. The structure is excellent - ideal for teaching and training.

Self-Actualization is presented by Maslow through a series of answers, working through the concept in four sections: honesty, awareness, freedom and trust. Maslow brings these headings to life, conveying some very complex intangible ideas - such as objectivity, detachment, maturity, love, acceptance, modesty and grace - in the most understandable way. Personally this video is one of the most powerful things I've ever seen.

The film can be used as a teaching aid, and/or as the presenter suggests, to help people understand Self-Actualization as goals or values to aspire to: "...ideas for living and being, fully functioning to one's full capacity..."

For anyone teaching or studying motivation, psychology, Maslow, and related areas - or simply interested in living a fulfilled and good life - these films will be fascinating, and for some people deeply inspirational too. Both films are available here.

In terms of format/compatibility, these US-made films wouldn't play on my (cheap) UK DVD player, but they ran happily on my (cheap) UK PC.

The above dvd materials are published by Maurice Bassett on behalf of the estate of Abraham Maslow.



additional maslow talks now on mp3

In August 2009 further exciting Maslow material became available for download in mp3 format after extensive work by publisher Maurice Bassett.

Volumes One and Two include a total of 28 and a half hours of Abraham Maslow's talks and workshops at the Esalen Institute, Big Sur, California, from the mid and late-1960s. The materials comprise:

Volume One:
Self-Actualization (1 mp3 file, total playing time 1 hour)
Psychology and Religious Awareness (1 mp3 file, total playing time 1 hour)
The Aims of Education (1 mp3 file, total playing time 1 hour)
The B-language Workshop (5 mp3 files, total playing time 5 hours, 35 minutes)
Weekend with Maslow (9 mp3 files, total playing time 4 hours, 25 minutes)

Volume Two:
The Eupsychian Ethic (6 mp3 files, total playing time 5 hours, 45 minutes)
The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (10 mp3 files, total playing time 9 hours, 45 minutes)

Samples and the entire recordings are available at www.abrahammaslow.com/audio.html

The mp3 materials above are published by Maurice Bassett on behalf of the estate of Abraham Maslow.



maslow's modern relevance

When you read Maslow's work, and particularly when you hear him speak about it, the relevance of his thinking to our modern world of work and management is astounding.

His explanations and interpretations of the human condition remain fundamentally helpful in understanding and addressing all sorts of social and behavioural questions - forty or fifty years after his death.

You will particularly see great significance of his ideas in relation to modern challenges for work such as in the Psychological Contract and leadership ethics, and even extending to globalization and society.

Maslow is obviously most famous for his Hierarchy of Needs theory, rightly so, because it is a wonderfully simple and elegant model for understanding so many aspects of human motivation, especially in the workplace. The simplicity of the model however tends to limit appreciation of Maslow's vision and humanity, which still today are remarkably penetrating and sensitive.
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2 Νοε 2010

Η διείσδυση του facebook στα ελληνικά ΑΕΙ

Ανακτήθηκε από Edugate

Του Αποστολου Λακασα

Η διείσδυση του facebook στα ελληνικά ΑΕΙ, έχει μία συμπληρωματική, προς το παρόν, θέση στους τρόπους επικοινωνίας των φοιτητών μεταξύ τους ή με τους καθηγητές.
«Ανοιξα σελίδα στο facebook, μετά από μια συζήτηση που είχα με τους προπτυχιακούς μου φοιτητές. Αντιλήφθηκα ότι με αυτόν τον τρόπο θα είχα μια άμεση, σε καθημερινή βάση, επαφή μαζί τους. Επιπλέον, ένιωσα ότι απέκτησα μαζί τους μεγαλύτερη συναισθηματική επαφή, αφού με ενέταξαν σε έναν χώρο που θεωρούν ότι απευθύνεται στη δική τους ηλικιακή ομάδα. Πλέον, χρησιμοποιώ το facebook για να τους ενημερώσω για σεμινάρια, συνέδρια, θερινά σχολεία, ευκαιρίες πρακτικής άσκησης και εργασίας καθώς και τρέχοντα θέματα του πανεπιστημίου και άλλα επιστημονικά ζητήματα. Σε καθημερινή βάση, μάλιστα, ανταλλάσσουμε πληροφόρηση για άρθρα, απόψεις για βιβλία, καλλιτεχνικά γεγονότα. Η επικοινωνία μας αυτή είναι φυσικά άτυπη, διότι έτσι δεν μπορείς να εξασφαλίσεις την ενημέρωση όλων»...

Η κ. Φωτεινή Ασδεράκη, με την οποία μίλησε η «Κ», είναι λέκτορας στο τμήμα Διεθνών και Ευρωπαϊκών Σπουδών του Πανεπιστημίου Πειραιώς, και μαζί με τον κ. Κωνσταντίνο Κορρέ, επιστημονικό συνεργάτη στα τμήματα Στατιστικής και Ασφαλιστικής Επιστήμης και στο Παιδαγωγικό Τμήμα των Παν. Πειραιώς και Αθηνών, και την κ. Ανατολή Βροχαρίδου, υποψήφια διδάκτορα του Παν. Αιγαίου, επιχειρούν να καταγράψουν τη διείσδυση του facebook και των υπόλοιπων σελίδων κοινωνικής δικτύωσης στη λειτουργία των ελληνικών ΑΕΙ.

Οι απαντήσεις των φοιτητών του Τμήματος Διεθνών και Ευρωπαϊκών Σπουδών, που συμμετείχαν στην έρευνα της τριμελούς ομάδας, δείχνουν ότι το facebook -η πιο διάσημη μεταξύ των σχετικών σελίδων- κερδίζει αργά αλλά σταθερά μια συμπληρωματική, προς το παρόν, θέση στους συνήθεις τρόπους επικοινωνίας και ενημέρωσης για τις δραστηριότητες στα ΑΕΙ. Μάλιστα, ήδη φοιτητές στο Παν. Πειραιά, το Πάντειο, και το Παν. Αιγαίου έχουν δημιουργήσει σελίδα στο facebook, η οποία λειτουργεί ως τόπος ηλεκτρονικής συνάντησης για τους φοιτητές του κάθε ιδρύματος. Ομως, οι σελίδες αυτές δεν έχουν την επίσημη έγκριση των ΑΕΙ. «Πολλές φορές επικοινωνούν μαζί μου μεταπτυχιακοί φοιτητές που βρίσκονται στο εξωτερικό για να συζητήσουν για ευκαιρίες που τους προσφέρονται ή να ζητήσουν να τους βοηθήσω για κάποια εργασία. Συχνά κοινοποιώ σε όλους τις επιτυχίες τους, όπως πρόσφατα με την αποδοχή ενός πτυχιούχου του Τμήματός μας στο Harvard, ή τη δημοσίευση ενός άρθρου τους, έτσι ώστε όλοι να ενθαρρυνθούν να διεκδικήσουν τα όνειρά τους. Το μεγαλύτερο όφελος προκύπτει από τη δικτύωση των μεταπτυχιακών με τους προπτυχιακούς φοιτητές» συμπληρώνει η κ. Ασδεράκη.

Τι προκύπτει

Ειδικότερα, από τα πρώτα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας προκύπτει ότι οι φοιτητές χρησιμοποιούν το facebook κατά μέσο όρο για 1,43 έτη. Σχεδόν οι έξι στους 10 (57,6%) το χρησιμοποιούν κατά μέσο όρο 2,52 φορές την ημέρα. Το 22% κατά μέσο όρο 4 φορές την εβδομάδα, ενώ το 6,8% κατά μέσο όρο 8,33 φορές τον μήνα. Το 13,6% των φοιτητών δεν το χρησιμοποιεί. Σχεδόν οι μισοί (50,9%) θεωρούν ότι το facebook είναι χρήσιμο για την επικοινωνία με τους συμφοιτητές τους. Μάλιστα, οι έξι στους δέκα (60%) δήλωσαν ότι μέσω facebook μπορούν να ανταλλάσσουν πληροφορίες για τα μαθήματα, εκδηλώσεις, νέα του ΑΕΙ (67,3%) ή εκδηλώσεις σχετικές με τις σπουδές τους (58,2%). Εντυπωσιακό είναι ότι το 47,3% των φοιτητών θεωρούν ότι η ιστοσελίδα μπορεί να βοηθήσει για τον συντονισμό κατά την εκτέλεση ομαδικών εργασιών. Επίσης, δηλώνουν ότι το facebook μπορεί να λειτουργήσει και ως μέσο ενημέρωσης για θέματα που αφορούν το επαγγελματικό τους μέλλον, ως χώρος προβληματισμού για τις δυσκολίες που θα συναντήσουν μετά την αποφοίτησή τους. Ετσι, το 58,9% υποστήριξε ότι το facebook μπορεί να συμβάλει στην επικοινωνία των φοιτητών με τα Γραφεία Διασύνδεσης (πρώην Σταδιοδρομίας) των ΑΕΙ και φορείς της αγοράς εργασίας. Ως προς την αξιοποίηση του facebook από τα ΑΕΙ, οι φοιτητές (50%) θεωρούν ότι η ιστοσελίδα μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί για την ενημέρωση των φοιτητών από τις διοικητικές υπηρεσίες.

Αμφίδρομη σχέση

Αντίθετα, η πλειοψηφία των φοιτητών (56,4%) δήλωσε ότι δεν θεωρεί τη χρήση του facebook βοηθητική για την επικοινωνία με τους διδάσκοντες για θέματα σχετικά με τα μαθήματα. Αυτό δείχνει ότι ακόμη οι νέοι δεν είναι εξοικειωμένοι με την ιδέα να αξιοποιήσουν ένα «νεανικό μέσο» στην επικοινωνία τους με τους συνήθως απόμακρους καθηγητές πανεπιστημίου. Βέβαια, η σχέση είναι αμφίδρομη, και μεγάλη σημασία στην ανάπτυξή της έχει και η στάση των καθηγητών. «Είναι δεδομένο πλέον ότι οι σελίδες κοινωνικής δικτύωσης, όπως συμβαίνει και στη ζωή, μπαίνουν σταδιακά και στη λειτουργία του πανεπιστημίου κι αυτό πρέπει να το ερευνήσουμε και να το αξιοποιήσουμε περισσότερο» καταλήγει η κ. Ασδεράκη.


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Τεχνικές συλλογής δεδομένων στην ποιοτική έρευνα

Το κείμενο αυτό είναι ένα απόσπασμα από το Κεφάλαιο 16: Ποιοτικές – ερμηνευτικές μέθοδοι έρευνας στη φυσική αγωγή (σελ.341-364) του βιβλίου «Για μία καλύτερη φυσική αγωγή»
(Παπαιωάννου, Α., Θεοδωράκης Ι., & Γούδας, Μ.). Θεσσαλονίκη Εκδόσεις Χριστοδουλίδη (www.xristodoulidi.gr). ISBN960-81-83-36-7




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1 Νοε 2010

Απουσία της Πληροφορικής στο Γενικό Λύκειο

Μια παραγωγή των καθηγητών ΠΕ19-20




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Το 92% διαφωνεί με την κατάργηση της πληροφορικής στα Γενικά Λύκεια

Σύμφωνα με τα αποτελέσματα της ψηφοφορίας που διήρκεσε περίπου 15 μέρες, το 92% των αναγνωστών του blog που ψήφισαν, διαφωνεί με την πρόθεση του υπουργείου παιδείας και δια βίου μάθησης να καταργήσει τη διδασκαλία της πληροφορικής στο γενικό λύκειο.

Αναρωτιέμαι σε ποιες επιστημονικές μελέτες στηρίζεται η πρόθεση του υπουργείου να καταργήσει το σημαντικότερο μάθημα αιχμής που διδάσκεται σήμερα στο γενικό λύκειο.
Ακόμα περισσότερο προβληματίζομαι στο ποιοι είναι είναι εκείνοι οι παιδαγωγοί - σύμβουλοι του υπουργείου που θεωρούν ότι θα πρέπει να διδάσκεται η πληροφορική από την πρώτη δημοτικού, στην πιο ευαίσθητη δηλαδή μαθητική ηλικία και σε ποιες επιστημονικές έρευνες στηρίζουν αυτήν τους την πρόταση.

Φίλες και φίλοι, όσο χρήσιμο είναι να μαθαίνουν οι μαθητές ολοκληρώματα, παραγώγους, νόμους της φυσικής, χημικούς τύπους, βιολογία, ξένες γλώσσες κλπ, άλλο τόσο χρήσιμο και αναγκαίο είναι να μάθουν να:
σκέφτονται σωστά και μεθοδολογικά
κάνουν χρήση των Η/Υ για ομαδική επίλυση προβλημάτων
αναζητούν πληροφορίες
εργάζονται ομαδικά
ενημερώνονται για τις εξελίξεις που αύριο θα τις βρουν μπροστά τους.

Η απαξίωση της πληροφορικής στο ενιαίο λύκειο απαξιώνει την ίδια την έννοια της εξέλιξης για την οποία τόσο πολύ κόπτονται οι ειδήμονες του υπουργείου παιδείας και δια βίου μάθησης.


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31 Οκτ 2010

Μεθοδολογία εκπαιδευτικής έρευνας

Ανακτήθηκε από τη βιβλιοθήκη του ΤΕΙ Θεσσαλονίκης




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Educational Blogging

Ανακτήθηκε από supportblogging

Educational Blogging is blogging by students, teachers, administrators, industry experts, and other involved entities that focus primarily on the educational process and educational interests.

This Website
In the context of this website, we will focus primarily on the use of blogging as an educational tool that teachers introduce to their students, then use as a means of promoting learning. One of the great educational benefits of the read/write web, and blogging particularly, is the opportunity for the student to become a "teacher" by presenting material to an audience. When we teach, we learn.

Uses for Blogging in Education
Teacher Communication
Teachers will often start a blog for providing communication to students, parents, or other teachers. Sometimes this is just the posting of homework or other assignments in one easy-to-find location. Other times this can be a richer description of the things taking place in the classroom, specifically drawing the parents into what their children are working on, or for students who have been absent. This type of blog can also take advantage of the comment feature for students and parents to ask questions or for clarification, where the answer would be of interest to all the readers...

Dialogue Generation
A teacher blog that posts questions about current subject matter can be a great way to introduce students to responding in writing and contributing collaboratively. For instance, a teacher might ask specific thought-provoking questions about a book the class is reading, and ask for students to respond through the comments feature with their ideas. This is often done as a voluntary exercise to help demonstrate the uses of blogs in easy steps.
Student Blogs
The providing of each student with an individual blog seems to generate the most significant enthusiasm for blogging among students. Whether done through special programs that allow strict teacher control and filtering on the blog posts and comments, or through public services with parent and teacher oversight, students with individual blogs have an opportunity to discover the work and joy of communicating their ideas in written form, and then getting feedback from others. Sometimes the blogs are not made public, and the feedback is just from classmates or specifically-allowed individuals; other times, and more often with older students, the feedback can come from the wider audience of the World Wide Web. Most often public student blogs are done under a nickname and without any personal details, so that the incredible excitement that can come from communicating with a global audience does not place the student in harm's way. Student blogging has to be overseen with coaching and training to make sure that both that personal data is not communicated and that blog posts are appropriate.
Teacher Blogs
Teachers can blog for each other about their experiences teaching, their philosophies, and their methodologies.

What blogging does for students
Helps them find a voice
Another benefit to educational blogging (and wiki-writing) is the opportunity for the student to find a personal "voice" and to develop individual interests. Much like journal-writing, blogging gives wings to ideas that otherwise may can stay trapped in the mind. Many individuals find that blog-writing changes their lives in a significant way by allowing them to express their ideas in a medium that appears to have life and longevity--and that might find a kindred audience.

Creates enthusiasm for writing and communications
It is not expected that all students will take to blogging (just as not all students enjoy writing), but it is believed that blogging has a unique ability to create enthusiasm for writing and the communication of ideas.

Engages students in conversation and learning
Educational Blogging is more than just being about writing, just like writing is more than just writing business correspondence or a lab report for Chemistry class.Unlike traditional forms of publication that are one-way, when the work is done at the end of the publication process, students can be engaged in ongoing conversations about their ideas and thoughts. This can be threatening for some administrators afraid of endangering children, yet, it brings a reality to the classroom that was not previously possible.

Provides an opportunity to teach about responsible journalism
Because students who are posting blogs reach an audience with their posts, whereas a personal diary can be kept private, students have the opportunity in blogging to learn about the power of the published word. Whereas they might be tempted to criticise or make fun of someone in private conversation or in a diary, they can be taught about responsible journalism, and that the consequences of these kinds of remarks in the new world of the read/write web can be serious and long-lasting.

Empowers students
Student blogging is incredibly empowering in the following ways:

1) Instead of writing as a mechanized approach to empowerment where we learn to write well enough for school and work, we learn to write for life-long learning purposes.

2) Writing and blogging and life are intertwined as difficult issues are exposed and dealt with in a transparent community of voices. Although this type of writing entails risk and trust, growth and teamwork naturally result.

3) Writing and blogging encourage students' initiative to write, to be engaged at more than just the head level. It involves writing from head and heart. Children often have not learned to do more than live from the heart, while adults have concentrated their efforts on more cerebral approaches. This means adults and children can bridge the gap that exists by writing together, creating a community of writers in their classrooms where there is no pseudo-community, only community where humans write.
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