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26 Σεπ 2010

What is Critical Thinking?

Ανακτήθηκε από criticalreading

No one always acts purely objectively and rationally. We connive for selfish interests. We gossip, boast, exaggerate, and equivocate. It is "only human" to wish to validate our prior knowledge, to vindicate our prior decisions, or to sustain our earlier beliefs. In the process of satisfying our ego, however, we can often deny ourselves intellectual growth and opportunity. We may not always want to apply critical thinking skills, but we should have those skills available to be employed when needed.
Critical thinking includes a complex combination of skills. Among the main characteristics are the following:

Rationality

We are thinking critically when we
rely on reason rather than emotion,
require evidence, ignore no known evidence, and follow evidence where it leads, and
are concerned more with finding the best explanation than being right analyzing apparent confusion and asking questions...

Self-awareness

We are thinking critically when we
weigh the influences of motives and bias, and
recognize our own assumptions, prejudices, biases, or point of view.
Honesty

We are thinking critically when we recognize emotional impulses, selfish motives, nefarious purposes, or other modes of self-deception.
Open-mindedness

We are thinking critically when we
evaluate all reasonable inferences
consider a variety of possible viewpoints or perspectives,
remain open to alternative interpretations
accept a new explanation, model, or paradigm because it explains the evidence better, is simpler, or has fewer inconsistencies or covers more data
accept new priorities in response to a reevaluation of the evidence or reassessment of our real interests, and
do not reject unpopular views out of hand.
Discipline

We are thinking critically when we
are precise, meticulous, comprehensive, and exhaustive
resist manipulation and irrational appeals, and
avoid snap judgments.
Judgment

We are thinking critically when we
recognize the relevance and/or merit of alternative assumptions and perspectives
recognize the extent and weight of evidence
In sum,
Critical thinkers are by natureskeptical. They approach texts with the same skepticism and suspicion as they approach spoken remarks.
Critical thinkers areactive, not passive. They ask questions and analyze. They consciously apply tactics and strategies to uncover meaning or assure their understanding.
Critical thinkers do not take an egotistical view of the world. They areopento new ideas and perspectives. They are willing to challenge their beliefs and investigate competing evidence.
Critical thinking enables us to recognize a wide range of subjective analyses of otherwise objective data, and to evaluate how well each analysis might meet our needs. Facts may be facts, but how we interpret them may vary.
By contrast, passive, non-critical thinkers take a simplistic view of the world.

They see things in black and white, as either-or, rather than recognizing a variety of possible understanding.
They see questions as yes or no with no subtleties.
They fail to see linkages and complexities.
They fail to recognize related elements.
Non-critical thinkers take an egotistical view of the world
They taketheirfacts as the only relevant ones.
They taketheir ownperspective as the only sensible one.
They taketheir goalas the only valid one.


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